Virtual Reality Treatment of Phantom Leg Pain

Web Administration Research Studies

Study Location
Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute – Philadelphia, PA

Research Objective
This study is a randomized controlled trial to determine if virtual reality (VR) treatments can reduce phantom leg pain. Group 1 will test our Active VR treatment (which involves virtual gaming with leg movements and visual feedback of the missing leg). Group 2 will receive a commercially available VR pain treatment (Distractor VR). Our findings will be used to develop and assess the feasibility of a home intervention program using the most efficacious intervention, either Active VR or Distractor VR. MRI imaging will be used in both studies to attempt to identify biomarkers that can predict the efficacy of treatment.

Eligibility Criteria

  • Unilateral Above-knee Amputation
  • Unilateral Below-knee Amputation
  • Experiences Phantom Limb Pain


  • Up to $180 (12 visits – 8 treatment sessions and 4 questionnaires sessions /$15 per visit)
  • Additional $80 (two MRI scans)
  • Paid Travel Costs

Enrollment Closes
September 2026

Time Commitment

  • 8 twice-weekly VR treatment sessions (1 hour each), 4 sessions of questionnaires (before and after treatment, plus two follow-up sessions).
  • Two Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans.

Contact Person
Elisabetta Ambron, PhD. | Email :
Research Associate, University of Pennsylvania

How to Participate
See further instructions in the Recruitment Flyer.